Nizhny Novgorod - one of the oldest Russian cities. He founded the great prince of Vladimir Yuri (George) Vsevolodovich, grandson of Yuri Dolgoruky family, in 1221 as a border fortress on the north-eastern borders of the Russian state. From ancient records historians know that the site of the modern city the end of the XII - early XIII century. was Mordvinian selbische. And in about 50s. XII century. on the right bank of the river Oka, Vladimir-Suzdal princes krepostitsu founded, later called the Old Town. According to local lore of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny new name has pryamuyusvyaz the Old Town.
Grand Duke Vsevolod, as stated in the record, ordered to lay the new town below the old fortress. And during the life of Prince, the founder of a military fortress at the confluence of the Oka and The Volga city of Nizhny called Nova. Construction of the fortress began with the construction of wood and earthen fortifications, and stone walls erected in the early XVI century. The castle and walls were protected by the entire population of the neighborhood. Of particular importance urban citadel lay in the fact that it was built on an elevated, well-protected by the river a place to stand out among the surrounding landscape (the majority of Russian fortresses were built on a flat plateau).
Nizhny Novgorod stone citadel, built in 1500-1515 years. Became the south-eastern Russian military outpost and military base at the same time the Russian troops in the campaigns in Ponizova (downstream of the Volga).
Initially the defense system comprised 15 Kremlin towers of similar device, but who shared in the form of two types: square, the main of which were Dmitrovskaya and Ivanovo, and round, smaller in volume.
The towers of the KremlinIn the XVIII century. there are 13 towers, five square and an eight-round.
Its name was given mainly to the temples and monasteries located near or at the destination:
- - St. George (Egoryevsk);
- - Boris and Gleb;
- - Conception (Zachatskaya);
- - White (Semionovskaya);
- - Ivanovo;
- - Hours;
- - North (Elijah);
- - Taynitskaya (Mironositskaya);
- - Koromyslova;
- - Nicholas;
- - Pantry (Tseyhgauznaya, Alekseevskaya);
- - Demetrius (Dmitrov);
- - Powder (Saviour).
1221. - The base of Nizhny Novgorod.
1350 - Conversion of the capital of Nizhny Novgorod Principality of Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod.
1392 - Accession of Nizhny Novgorod to the Moscow principality.
1500-51 years. - Construction of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
1612 - Formation of the Nizhny Novgorod militia led by Minin and Pozharsky.
1719 - Conversion of Nizhny Novgorod in the provincial capital
1817 - Start of operation of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair.
1849 - Foundation of the Sormovo plant.
1862 - The construction of the railway.
1896 - Started Nizhegorodka tram.
1917 - The establishment of Soviet power.
1932 - Renaming the city of Gorky.
1932 - Started automobile plant them. Molotov
1932 - Started Aviation Plant №21
1933. - Establishment of the Gorky region.
1941-43 years. - Air Nazi air raids on the city.
1949 - Construction of the famous Chkalov stairs.
1985 - Opened the subway.
1991 - The return of the city historical name - Nizhny Novgorod.